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In different countries it was known by different names: Art Nouveau in France, Jugendstil in Germany, Stile Liberty in Italy and Modernisme in Spain. It was also interpreted in many different ways.

This issue includes spectacular early 20th century jewels by four titans of the Art Nouveau movement in four different countries: Louis Comfort Tiffany in New York, Josef Hoffmann in Vienna, Frans Zwollo Sr in The Hague and the Carreras atelier in Barcelona.

Together they helped wean Gilded Age America and Belle Époque Europe off diamond and pearls in favour of plique-à-jour enamel, semi-precious stones and a shared focus on organic motifs.

Read our latest Jewellery feature in this issue